Freedom and Peace Movement
The Freedom and Peace Movement (Ruch "Wolność i Pokój", WiP) was a Polish opposition group set up in 1985. What triggered the creation of the WiP was the trial and imprisonment of Marek Adamkiewicz, a conscientious objector, in 1984. Originally a grassroots initiative, the Freedom and Peace Movement evolved into a pacifist, anti-communist, environmentalist, and human rights organization, which became one of the most active opposition groups in Poland. It collaborated with similar organizations in Western Europe, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and the GDR. Initially, the WiP operated in Warsaw, Krakow, Gdańsk and Wrocław. Its members represented diverse political persuasions including pacifism, anarchism, national conservatism, and Catholic social thought. The WiP took part in the 1988 strikes, triggered the 1988 reform of military service which introduced alternative civilian service for conscripts, and led the successful protests against the construction of the Żarnowiec nuclear power plant. The group got marginalized in 1988/89 and disbanded itself in 1992.
- Kunicki, Mikołaj